CAUSES OF MFECANE PDF

The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.

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The Mfecane can be said to be a single event because all the wars that became the Mfecane and eventually led to the rise of the Zulu state were interconnected. Preview 2 out of 10 pages.

Causes of the Mfecane

Your fellow students know exactly where the pitfalls lie and csuses the key elements will be to your success in that module. This was because the long wars could not permit them.

For instance the Ndwandwe and Ngwane lived close to each other in mvecane Pongola Valley and as their populations grew there was an increase in demand for cultivable lands. Migrants, Strangers and the Church in Southern Africa. Upload Papers, win an iPhone X.

At that time the Zulus were a very weak ethnic group under the leadership of Senzangakhona. Most states united to form strong kingdoms for security purposes e.

The Zulus also instituted a form of conscription, in which every man had to serve the king as soldier in special age regiments, known in English as impis. Instead of using throwing spears, the Zulus used broad-bladed, stabbing spears known as iklwawhich were deadly in close combat. With the study guides and notes written by fellow students, you are guaranteed to be properly prepared for your exams. Going north and then inland westward along the watershed between the Vaal and the Limpopo rivers, Mzilikazi and his followers, the AmaNdebele, called Matebele in English established an Ndebele state northwest of the city of Pretoria.

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Another one of the factors that led to the Mfecane was the refugee problem created causez the wars.

Causes of the Mfecane – History – Stuvia

Moreover, possibilities for population movement had become mefcane more limited by the end of the eighteenth century because land was in short supply. In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated large areas as refugees scrambled to safety in mountain fastnesses or were killed, thus easing the way for white expansion into Natal and the Highveld.

First of all, the population explosion in the area of Southern Africa among the Nguni people led to wars that opened the way for the Mfecane. The causes of mfecane cakses not very clear; however the proposed causes for its occurrence included.

Emergency of strong and well developed states i. Many of the Mthethwa leaders formed a confederation with the Zulu clan, under the leadership of Shaka.

There was transformation of cultures and languages by either some people adopting other people’s language they came into contact i. According to Cobbing, apartheid historians had mischaracterised the Mfecane as a period of internally induced black-on-black destruction.

Advance of the Boers northwards increased land shortage particularly inthe south Eastern region of South Africa; they started fighting the Zulu, Xhosa. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.

He took him in together with his mother Queen Nandi and gave them refuge. The rise of Shaka who was a great Ngoni and Sotho leader, he believed in the expansion of the Zulu kingdom.

A combination of local factors–population growth, the depletion of natural resources, and devastating drought and famine–led to revolutionary changes in the political, economic, and social structure of Bantu-speaking communities in southern Africa in the first half of the nineteenth century. They also took large numbers of captives north with them, [10] finally settling north of the Zambezi River in Barotselandwhere they conquered the Lozi people.

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South Africa Table of Contents A combination of local factors–population growth, the depletion of natural resources, and devastating drought and famine–led to revolutionary changes in the political, economic, and social structure of Bantu-speaking communities in southern Africa in the first half of the nineteenth century.

Portuguese Rule in Central Africa as liberal and oppressive.

What had caused the Mfecane?

Peace and Conflict Studies, Security. Eldredge also asserts that Cobbing downplays the importance of the ivory trade in Delagoa Bay, and the extent to which African groups and leaders sought to establish more centralised and complex state formations to control ivory routes and the wealth associated with the trade. They included the following. Zwangendaba of the Jele or Gumbi clan son of Nonyanda ka Sguda Jele according to the information given by the original Gumbi clan of Kwazulu Natal and not kaHlatshwayo as stated by other researchers [ citation needed ]a commander of the Ndwandwe army, fled north with Soshangane after his defeat in World War I, an international conflict that in —18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along….

The role of cross-listings in establishing a Southern African Devel As several ethnic groups moved from their homelands to other areas, several territories were left without owners.