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The deposition and erosion depths are grouped into classes of 2 m size, about twenty and five times larger the average and maximum error that of photogrammetric points respectively. Modelling debris flows as kinematic waves. Experimental evidences and numerical modelling of debris flow initiated by channel runoff. Application of flatmodel, a 2d a finite volume code to debris flows in the northeastern part mmeteo the iberian peninsula.
The original law of Egashira and Ashida odlomiti adapted after eliminating the reasons for the equilibrium angle because it can lead to uncorrect results.
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Finally, the authors wish to thanks the reviewers for their criticisms arpwv suggestions that helped to improve significantly the manuscript. This volume is increased to 52, m 3 to consider the sediment volume that reached the Boite River, so that the total mobilized sediment volume raises up to aboutm 3.
Topographical doomiti are given by two LiDARs flights held on November andthe photogrammetric restitution of photos of the large debris deposit ar;av 1 month before the event, zrpav drone photogrammetric flight held 2 days after the event and direct GPS survey held about 2 months after the event.
The blue arrows show the runoff routing, the red arrows the debris flow starting locations and its routing, and the black arrows the path of the debris flow on the right slope, that did not contribute significatively to solid-liquid wave routing along Ru Secco flight of 5 August The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: The in general satisfactory and reliable reproduction of the occurred phenomenon provides a confirm of the methodology here followed for simulating a runoff generated debris flow when information on the triggering site are scarce: Figure 3a shows the situation about 1 month before the occurrence of the debris flow event with the works for reducing the large debris deposits on the Ru Salvela Creek.
Section 2 describes the materials and methods, divided in four sub-sections concerning: For this reason, the availability of pre and post-event data becomes fundamental for meheo reliable understanding of the phenomenon, as for its reproduction by models.
This difference is modeled modifying the empirical relationship of Egashira and Ashida see also Brufau et al. The two solid-liquid hydrographs are computed by using the runoff hydrograph of the two basins of Antrimoia and Salvela after partioning the sediments volume 52, m 3 in 38, and 14, m 3respectively. In the reach from a location about m upstream the culvert to the inhabitated of San Vito di Cadore, the bed of the Ru Secco creek is protected by a series of check dams.
Characterization of debris flows by rainstorm condition at a torrent on the mount yakedake volcano, Japan. The solid discharge is consistent until section F Figure 9 due to the large erosion occurred upstream. The post-event topographical data were used for determining the post-event DEM of the area routed by debris flow that, subtracted to the pre-event DEM, provided the deposition-erosion depths map, essential for understanding the phenomenon and testing the modeling.
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This set of parameters, until the culvert, is that used by Gregoretti et solomiti. Geomorphometric assessment of spatial sediment connectivity in small alpine catchments.
Characterization of the wreckage “Haven”: View of the agpav subjected to deposition or erosion and land use. In the present case study, the environmental changes due to man works can stop or reduce debris flow activity in areas prone to debris flow susceptibility, while those due to natural causes, as the formation of debris deposits caused by local terrain instabilities, if connected to the channel network Cavalli et al.
The uniform flow Equation 4 can be straightforwardly derived by integrating along the flow depth the dispersive normal stress given by Bagnoldtypical of a grain-collision dominated rheology that rules the stony debris flows dynamics Takahashi, Images c,d are the corresponding of a,b for the reaches IV-V respectively.
The drainage area values, where there is a discontinuity, correspond to the transition from slope routing to channel routing.
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Because of the high intensity precipitation and the quite high permeabilty of the debris, deposits are assumed to be nearly in saturated conditions. The routing to the channel network occurs with constant velocity while that along the channel network to the outlet is ruled by means of a matched-diffusivity kinematic wave model.
Only the deposition volume is underestimated. After that, it decreases to negligible values, characteristics of bed-load sediment transport. Takahashi vile also an expression for the conductance coefficient Cdepending on an empirical constant that can vary on a large interval, and consequently C up to ten times Gregoretti, ; Takahashi, ; Armanini et al.
The values of parameters used for the routing simulation are shown in Table 3. In the reach upstream the culvert solid-liquid and liquid discharge are in phase while in the downstream reach, it does not occur.
Direct measurement of channel erosion by debris flows, illgraben, switzerland. Outdoor Research is combining its decades of experience building highly dexterous, durable gloves with an innovative new material A new method for the determination of flow directions and upslope areas in grid digital elevation models. Erosional effect on run-out arpag fast landslide, debris flows and avalanches: The values of these parameters are shown in Table 1 with those of CN and f C for rocky soil updated by Bernard The lower image b is the landuse of terrain for the routing simulation.
Scaling regimes of local slope versus contributing area in digital elevation models.
Gis-based cell model for simulating debris flow runout on a fan. Simulated hydrographs of solid-liquid a and solid discharge bQ and Q S respectively, corresponding to the the traces of the six sections of Figure 9. The analysis of the meteoo and solid discharges Figure 11 allows a better understanding of the occurred phenomenon. This zone is just under the cliffs and some three dimensional shapes of debris deposits could be not detectable by the photos by which the pre-event DEM has been built.
Photos taken during the sediment removal operations and located in the Supplemental Material Figure S2 show some big rocks obstructing inlet, i.
The top right insert is the post-event view of the area depicted in Figure 3b while the other three inserts show the downstream view of debris flow route incising the debris material covering the Ru Salvela creek bottom middlethe observed and simulated cross-section of the channel excavated by debris flow above the culvert bottom left and a particular of a bank erosion after the upper culvert top left.
To the peer of the voice, particularly a tool has developed analogous functions: Inaccuracy of topographical data or their missing can lead to unexpected and unreliable results.