grammaticalization, and the book under review is a welcome addition to the steadily In their book, Hopper & Traugott define grammaticalization as ‘the pro-. Traugott ; Hopper & Traugott ), is a basic type of change that may lead to Claims about “constructions” and grammaticalization in earlier work. Grammaticalization: Paul J. Hopper, Elizabeth Closs Traugott, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, second ed., , xx +.
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Grammaticalization is a process leading from lexemes to grammatical formatives. The following will be a non-exhaustive list of authors who have written about the subject with their individual approaches to the nature of the term ‘grammaticalization’.
More specifically, with reference to grammaticalization, bleaching refers to the loss of all or most lexical content of an entity while only its grammatical content is retained,  for example James Matisoff described bleaching as “the partial effacement of a morpheme’s semantic features, the stripping away of some of its precise content so it can be used in an grammaticalizatino, grammatical-hardware-like way”.
This example also illustrates that semantic bleaching of a form in its grammaticalized morphemic role does not necessarily imply bleaching of its lexical source, and grammwticalization the two can separate neatly in spite of maintaining identical phonological form: However, there are some processes that are often linked to grammaticalization.
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This page was last edited on 4 Decemberat That is, it may involve certain typical “path way s”, but the latter seem to be built out of separate stepping-stones which can often be seen in isolation and whose individual outlines are always distinctly recognizable”. Since then, the study of grammaticalization has become broader, and linguists have extended the term into various directions. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article.
Lehmann also invented a set of ‘parameters’, a method along which grammaticality could be measured both synchronically and diachronically. Some linguists trace erosion to the speaker’s tendency to follow the principle of least effort, while others think that erosion is a sign of changes taking place.
Selected pages Title Page. It is difficult to capture the term “grammaticalization” in one clear definition see the ‘various views on grammaticalization’ section below.
Hopper P., Traugott E.C. Grammaticalization
Among recent publications there is a wide range of descriptive studies trying to come up with umbrella definitions and exhaustive lists, while others tend to focus more on its nature and significance, questioning the opportunities and boundaries of grammaticalization.
An example is the phrase to up the ante, which incorporates the preposition up a function word in trauogtt verb a grammaticapization word but grammaticalizstion up becoming a verb outside of this lexical item. In historical linguistics and language changegrammaticalization also known as grammatization or grammaticization is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions i.
Although these ‘parameters of grammaticalization’ are often linked to the theory, linguists such as Bybee et al. In both languages, – mente in this usage is interpretable by today’s native speakers only as a morpheme signaling ‘adverb’ and it has undergone no phonological erosion from the Latin source, mente. Traugott cites a counterexample from function to content word proposed by Kate Burridge He suggested that in all languages grammatical structures evolved out of a language stage in which there were only words for concrete objects and ideas.
The following articles are merged in Scholar. Janda, for example, wrote that “given that even writers on grammaticalization themselves freely acknowledge the involvement of several distinct processes in the larger set of phenomena, it is hard to avoid the conclusion that the notion of grammaticalization, too, tends to represent an epiphenomenal telescoping.
Here, the phrase has lost its lexical meaning of “allow us” and has become an auxiliary introducing a suggestion, the pronoun ‘us’ reduced first to a suffix and then to an unanalyzed phoneme.
The authors synthesize work from several areas of linguistics. Semantic bleaching, or desemanticization, has been seen from early on as a characteristic of grammaticalization. Expanding the Definition of Grammaticalization. Indeed, the possibility of counterexamples, coupled with their rarity, is given as evidence for the general operating principle of unidirectionality. Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing boundinflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.
Critics of the theory of grammaticalization have used these difficulties to claim that grammaticalization has no independent status of its own, that all processes involved can be described separately from the theory of grammaticalization. Instead, a phrase like cantare habeoliterally I have got to sing acquired the sense of futurity cf. According to Lyle Campbellhowever, advocates often minimize the counterexamples or redefine them as not being part of the grammaticalization cline.
My profile My library Metrics Alerts. Glottalized and murmured occlusives in Indo-European. Bernd Heine and Tania Kuteva have described different kinds of phonetic erosion for applicable cases:. These are semantic bleachingphonetic erosionmorphological reduction and obligatorification. Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure 45, 27 However, phonetic erosion, a common process of language change that can take place with no connection to grammaticalization, is not a necessary property of grammaticalization.
Once a linguistic expression has changed from a lexical to a grammatical meaning bleachingit is likely to lose morphological and syntactic elements that were characteristic of its initial category, but which are not relevant to the grammatical function. The last decade has seen a rise in popularity in construction-based approaches to grammar.
An illustrative example of this cline is in the orthography of Japanese compound verbs. New citations to this author.
Grammaticalization – Paul J. Hopper, Elizabeth Closs Traugott – Google Books
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It plays an important role in the reconstruction of older states of a language. Frequency and the Grammaticalixation of linguistic structure J Bybee, P Hopper Frequency and the emergence of linguistic structure 45, 1 In the words of Bernd Heine”grammaticalization is a unidirectional process, that is, it leads from less grammatical to more grammatical forms and constructions”.
Account Options Sign in. It is very common for full verbs grammaaticalization become auxiliaries and eventually inflexional endings. For an understanding of this process, a distinction needs to be made between lexical itemsor content words, which carry specific lexical meaning, and grammatical items, or function words, with little or no lexical meaning, which serve to express grammatical relationships between the different words in an utterance.
It was not until the s, with the growth of interest in discourse analysis and linguistic universalsthat the interest for grammaticalization in linguistic studies began to gramnaticalization again.
New articles by this author. The overall scope of this work is to provide an account of tense from the viewpoint of language universals and linguistic typology, that is, to establish the range of variation that is found across languages in tense, and what the limits are to that variation.