Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.
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Isam Alzubydy marked it as to-read Sep 25, Statesmen and peoples called upon to allot priorities among goals that belong to these two categories often face trying dilemmas. Discover Prime Book Box for Kids. Nobody would question the value of the medical sciences to the practice of medicine: These factors will be discussed here under the heading of determinants, or codeterminants, of policy.
Yet, in the last analysis, it is the goals pursued by the actors and the way they go about pursuing them that determine whether and to what extent the potentialities discodr power struggle and war are realized. Citations are based on reference standards. In the political arena, conflict as well as co-operation is collaborstion of the interaction among the actors; an actor’s goals collabboration shape in the form of demands on others; the means each employs can be measured only in relation to the means of others.
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Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.
The second incentive which, to the disappointment of idealists, proves much more potent Is the desire to meet a common ans threat by co-operative effort; here co-operation is predicated on the continuance of the threat.
Similarly, although individual nations and statesmen have a great and sometimes spec- tacular impact on the course of events, international “relations” in the literal sense require foremost attention. It always would have been possible to interpret international politics through an examination of the individuals responsible for state action: Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. The andd is hardly surprising since the environmentalist approach was suggesting that the psy- chology of particular decision-makers or of particular nations was of little consequence at a time when the world was confronted with an array of leaders from Churchill and Roosevelt to Hitler, Stalin, and lesser dictators whose imprint on the policy of their countries could not well be ignored or minimized and arnolld the arena of world politics was beginning to include more and more nations that differed greatly in national character from Western countries.
Jan 01, Alejo rated it really liked it Shelves: It is hard to predict the course that Nehru will follow as a consequence of wolferw rather remote threats of the cold war to India. What interests us here is the role this approach assigns to identifiable human beings and their predispositions.
No serious analyst would contend today that behavior in the international field, or for that matter in any other field of human activity, could be satisfactorily explained by reference to a single determinant.
Co-operation may arise from a desire to improve discorr within the co-operating group, in which case the collaboratlon is turned Inward and is inde- pendent of threats from outside the group. Some of the historical essays, as for instance those dealing with the unique compound of national initiative and inter- national cooperation that riscord into the Korean war, or those that throw light on the factors and forces which promoted the alliances of many European nations between the two world wars, are valu- able efforts to draw from the experience of collaboratiion past in order to guide policy in the present.
In the meantime much can happen to a nation that diverts its limited collaboratioh power from the task of protecting itself against immediate and specific threats to the task of “police action” in places where its survival is not at stake.
There is no yardstick by which to decide whether the promotion of any particular interest of larger or smaller groups of citizens deserves to be turned into a national goal, but it would be absurd to maintain that no goal can be in the national interest unless it is of the direct type. The new postcolonial states present another illustration of differences in outlook among different actors. It should be added, however, that even if foreign policy were directed predominantly toward a single goal, such a goal would not monopolize the entire activity of states, except in the extreme emergency of a war.
If nation-states are conceived of as the sole actors, it Is Inevitable that they be treated as if endowed, collaboratuon human beings, with wills and minds of their own that permit them to cillaboration decisions and to carry them out.
Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books
There Is, however, nothing absolute or unchanging about the value men attach to state interests. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format.
They assume that better understanding between peoples opens the safest path to peace, while Dunn has pointed out that peoples who know and understand each other perfectly may nevertheless become involved in war.
The Soviet estimate of American resistance to acts of the U. The elements internal to the actor that went into the process of “making up his mind” his preferences and prejudices, his will power and determination, his assessment of risks and opportunities are included among the factors.
When this happens these leaders place their states in the service of the transnational cause of abolishing Western colonial rule everywhere. As soon as one seeks to discover the place of goals in the means-end chain of relationships, almost inevitably one is led to probe into the dark labyrinth of human motives, those internal springs of conscious and unconscious actions which Morgenthau calls “the most illusive of psychological data.
In contrast, diplomatic postures of amity and enmity do not depend on emotional conditions and may in fact contradict them. Here, also, a decision-making analysis would be useful only in regard to individuals who decided to remain where they were rather than join the general and expected rush. The case of German “revisionism” after World War I offers a good illustration.
To make things more complicated, what constitutes a means or intermediate goal in one context may be a remote if not ultimate goal in another, with specific objectives changing places from one instance to another.
There is one difference, however: Be the first to ask a question about Discord and Collaboration. Where external defense rather than economic co-operation or the pacific settlement of disputes among members of the group is the essential aim as in an alliance, any diminution of the external threat or of the will to meet it will tend to undermine cohesion and render futile any attempts to save the alliance by inward-directed “diver- sions.
At the same time, Russians may find that their American counterparts demand the containment, if not elimina- tion, of Communist tyranny, and a halt to Russian expansion before it reaches the Mediterranean or Persian Gulf and endangers Amer- ican security.
No matter how powerful the onslaught of external forces, men are not transformed into mere automatons. Accordingly, the systematic study of interna- tional relations arnood assumed the greatest vitality and importance, and to that study these essays by Arnold Wolfers represent a most welcome contribution. When sentiments of hatred for the enemy are absent prior to hos- tilities, governments usually see to it that they do not remain absent long.
Where these hatreds are dominant, it is hard to say whether the interpretation of the national interest is perverted by emotional attachment to ideology and dogma, aand whether subjective emotions merely accompany the pursuit of ideological goals to which the nations or regimes in question are dedicated anyway, thereby simply adding more drive and forceful- ness to the ideological pursuit.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics
Return to Vinnie’s Home Page. One need only look closely at a feature as significant in high politics and as strongly stressed in the states-as-actors approach as the balancing of power process.
The minds-of-men approach received its emotional stimulus from two sources: Imagine a number of individuals, varying widely in their predis- positions, who find themselves inside a house on fire. If they are thereby rendered incapable of a dispassionate view of wwolfers situation, they may fail, for disclrd, to seek amical solutions to conflicts that actually would be capable of peaceful resolution.
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